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About Us Contact Donate Now. Listen navigate down. News Programs navigate down. Podcasts navigate down. Features navigate down. Categories navigate down. Newsletters navigate down. The dove, a symbol of peace, flies over a mosque in Afghanistan. Related Content. Jeff Flake: Republicans stand by amid Trump's 'abuse of power'. The distortions are more subtle. Even when a stated policy aims to balance diplomatic and military concerns, how the message is delivered matters.

The peace to end all peace | The Spectator

And if investment in diplomatic tools is erratic and inadequate, those tools lose their effectiveness, giving policymakers little choice but to resort to military alternatives. Rinse, repeat. He similarly has little to say about the other diplomatic accomplishments of the Obama years — the opening to Cuba, the Paris climate accords — let alone the diplomatic efforts that ultimately failed.

Remember the Russia reset? Those omissions are in themselves telling, since they reflect a deeper challenge that reinforces the dynamics Farrow deplores.

War and Peace: the 10 things you need to know (if you haven't actually read it)

Even the most towering diplomatic achievements are at best partial victories; what look like necessary compromises at the negotiating table become ripe targets for political attack when diplomats come home and present uncertain promises and half-measures to a public that prefers silver bullets and sweeping principles. Daniel Kurtz-Phelan is the executive editor of Foreign Affairs. Austria was cut down from a great multinational empire to a modest German-speaking province with few industrial assets, and was forbidden to unite with Germany in spite of substantial majorities in favour in both countries.

In , there were four million non-Germans inside Germany. In there were two million ethnic Germans outside it in addition to the Austrians.

MGS: Peace Walker - "The End Codec Call"

Most of them were assigned without their consent to artificial multi-ethnic states like Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, which only despotism could ever have held together. And despotism was to be their fate until recent times. The peacemakers, led by Britain, made an even bigger hash of the Near and Middle East. Large parts of Turkish Anatolia and Thrace were assigned to Greece to satisfy the ambitions of Prime Minister Venizelos and the philhellenism of Lloyd George, or to France to indulge a romantic conceit about her special relationship with the Levant going back to the crusades and the Napoleonic wars.

The straits and adjacent coasts, including the ancient capital of Constantinople, were placed under international effectively British control.

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These arrangements proved to be short-lived. Turkey refused to sign the treaty, dared the Allies to invade, and threw out the Greeks by force. The straits settlement was progressively scrapped over the following years. The damage done in the non-Turkish provinces of the former Ottoman empire is still with us.

Most of the problems of Palestine, Syria and Lebanon date from the mandatory regimes of Britain and France after the first world war. A new state of Iraq was created as an inherently unstable combination of three minorities, ostensibly controlled by the Sunni Arabs, actually by Britain. The peninsular Arabs, to whom Britain had made vast and unrealisable promises during the war, were left to fight it out over the remainder.

The economist John Maynard Keynes famously denounced the treaties and their authors in The Economic Consequences of the Peace, one of the most brutal political pamphlets ever penned. But the odd thing is that the peacemakers were well aware of the explosive mixture that they were creating, even as they were doing it. Lloyd George denounced the draft instrument in a note addressed to Clemenceau before it was finalised:. You may strip Germany of her colonies, reduce her army to a mere police force, and her navy to that of a fifth-rate power; all the same in the end, if she feels that she has been unjustly treated, she will find means of exacting retribution. Injustice, arrogance, displayed in the hour of triumph will never be forgotten or forgiven. Robert Lansing, the U. Secretary of State was appalled by the terms. Even Clemenceau reckoned that the treaty would only put off the next war for 20 years, a prediction that proved to be uncannily correct.

Responsible British officials said much the same about the reorganisation of the former Ottoman empire.

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Why did they do it? The answer, sad to say, is that they did it because crude national assertiveness and vengeance were popular with their electorates.


Wilson had constantly to look over his shoulder at a suspicious and insular public and a hostile Republican-controlled Congress. A century before, in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars, professional diplomats had settled the fate of nations at the Congress of Vienna with minimal outside interference and correspondingly greater freedom to compromise. They did not have to cope with newspaper reporters and telegraph lines.