Experimentally, a pulse laser Nd YAG nm, 7 ns, dan 45 mJ was focused on a sodium aerosol to induce a luminous plasma. The plasma was then sent into the spectrometer to obtain the emission spectrum of sodium. The observed sodium aerosol samples were made in five variations based on their various molarities concentrations. Variations are made, ranging from 1 molar to 3 molar with the difference of each sample of 0. Sharp Na lines at The other lines coming from Cu subtarget occurs at Detail study of sodium analysis using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy will be presented.
One of the MCNP applications is to determine the radiation dose distribution in the brachytherapy process. In this research performed the calculation of the distribution of radiation doses in the lung organ and some organs at risk, so it can be known whether the doses received by the surrounding organs are still within normal limits or not. The radioactive source used is Cs in the form of points with activity varying from 1.
From the absorbed dose can be calculated dose distribution on each organ including the target organ and the surrounding organ. The aims of this study were to investigate the noise reduction in a CT image using a modified Wiener filtering-edge detection method. We modified the noise reduction algorithm of a combination of the Wiener filter and edge detection by addition of a dilation stage after edge detection. We then evaluated kernel size of the Wiener filter, threshold values in the edge detection, and size of structuring elements in the dilation process. The images of the anthropomorphic phantom were used for a visual evaluation, while the images of the wire-phantom were used to obtain the spatial resolution and noise of the images.
A Wiener filter-edge detection filter coupled with dilation, potentially reduced more CT noise. We found that the spatial resolution and noise of the filtered images were influenced by the size of the Wiener filter kernel, threshold of edge detection, and size of structuring element. ZnO semiconductor is one of the photocatalyst materials that has become a concern in the world of research. This is due to its ability to degrade pollutants effectively, economically and environmentally friendly.
Many studies have been developed to enhance the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, one of them by the addition of doping. Increasing the concentration of non-metallic doping on ZnO will affect its energy level so that it can improve the physical properties and optical properties. Nitrogen has been considered as a very good dopant because it has an ionic radius comparable to oxygen and also has small ionization energy. High nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by sol-gel spray coating methods on glass substrate. Using spectrophotometer UV-Vis Materials were characterized to obtain the absorbance spectrum, in order to analyze its optical absorption region.
The result shows that all materials have high absorption in the UV region. It indicates that high N-doping enhanced the light absorption capacity of ZnO. Dose recording in patients is not well implemented and so far has not been supported by the dose panel on the X-ray machine. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a dose-record application capable of storing dose data to support the patient's radiation safety. It also refers to the regulation of diagnostic radiology service standards, medical records, and hospital accreditation standards regulated by the Ministry of Health.
This study aimed to design an application of patient dosage record for abdominal examination with a Fluoroscopy X-ray machine. The design of dosage record application is done by exposing to radiation output and voltage kV variation of X-ray irradiation on The data is processed and multiplied by backscatter factor BSF is 1. The dosage record application design can be used to record patient data with the calculated formulation obtained. Ion wind drying also called corona wind drying in this study using a pin-multi ring concentric electrode.
The purpose of the research is to determine the velocity of the ion wind by the characteristic of the method MOC and to apply it for drying the black turmeric Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. In theory, the ion wind velocity is equal to the ion mobility multiplied by the electric field. In MOC, the ion mobility is obtained from the graph of the relationship between the electric corona discharge current and the applied high voltage. The ion wind produced by corona discharge has been drying of the black turmeric slices with an applied high voltage 4 kV, the gap electrode 6 mm and drying time minutes with a 5 minute time interval.
Sliced black turmeric was circle formed with a radius of 15 mm and a thickness of mm with an interval of 2 mm thickness. According to the results obtained, a constant of comparing the ion wind velocity with the MOC.. Its value is around which is hypotheses of the value of the relative permittivity the ion wind. The drying rate maximum of the black turmeric Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb slices occurs at the beginning of drying is after a 5 minute drying time. This characteristic for all the variations of the samples radius. This causes the moisture content of the black turmeric slices to drop drastically.
The generation of this reactor generates ozone concentration which can be arranged upon the proper dose for medical applications.
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AC high voltage is applied to the range of kV and the frequency of 50 Hz. The results showed that current as a function of voltage where the current is increased with the increasing of voltage. Ozone productivity is shown by the significant increase of current. Ozone concentration is increasing as the increase of the voltage provided, but rather the concentration of ozone is decreasing as the increasing of flow rate.
The Ozone capacity is affected by ozone concentration and flow rate, and can be used to determine the ozone dose. The proper dose of ozone can be ozone therapy for various kinds of diseases. Testing the quality of cooking oil is very important, especially to ensure the quality and identification of other unexpected mixture of cooking oil. In this paper, the fluorescence polarisation method will be used to test the presence of lard contamination on cooking oil.
Fluorescence polarization is similar to fluorescence intensity, in that it is based on the emission of light by an excited fluorophore. However, samples are excited by polarized light which is selected by specific polarizing filters. The angle of linearly polarized incoming light was adjusted by using a polarizer.
The samples were various edible oils, i. The test is carried out by measuring the change in the average polarization angle of the fluorescent light to the polarizing angle of each incoming light over the sample directly. The results of the critical angle showed that all three samples were characteristic. These results show that the fluorescence polarization method has a good prospect for oil contamination test on cooking oil. Until the next following decades, energy mixed in Indonesia will be dominated by coal.
Many studies assert that biomass can be used as coal substitution but it is not the case in the real world because the cost of biomass is still higher than the coal price. This study proposes the cheaper way of making biomass by using special method of local waste processing unit that has a patented name, TOSS.
This kind of biomass, which was invented by STT PLN Jakarta, school of technology, is more economical than other biomass because waste as raw materials is much cheaper than other commonly used biomass like wooden forestry or agroplantations. Many cities in the world are solving their municipal waste problem by using large scale and high tech approach, which process is conducted in the landfill area.
TOSS is using small scale and simple technology that can convert waste to become pellet by local people in its source. The pilot project at Klungkung showed that the pellet of TOSS can be used not only for cooking but also for diesel fuel substitution. This study will use that finding to show that TOSS pellet can also reduce coal consumption by mixing it with normal coal. The simulation is conducted by calculating the equivalent energy and capacity of waste energy from TOSS in term of coal equivalent under the context of Indonesia.
The condition of the geological structure, land use, and slope in Trangkil Sukorejo Gunungpati Semarang City's residential area can influence the occurrence of the landslide. In this study zoning is conducted to identifying the landslide vulnerable area and based on three main parameters that affect the occurrence of land movement, i. The result indicates that the southern part of the settlement is relatively safe than the northern part where the landslide vulnerability point is located, there is a fracture that can trigger the water entry through the weathered breccia.
In this paper we studied contribution of electro-optics effect for evaluation of canola oil quality using transmission and fluorescence polarization. The samples were two different quality of canola oils, i. The physical variable of polarization angle was measured using a pair of polarizers from a nm of green pointer laser. The electro-optics effect was produced by applying high DC voltage kV on samples. The result shows that the change of polarization angle of expired oil is greater than the good one for both transmission and fluorescence.
The increasing polarization angle is accompanied by increasing saturated FAs and decreasing polyunsaturated FAs simultaneously, in agreement with our previous reports. The fluorescence polarization is dependent on the polarizer's angle of incoming light and has average angle greater than transmission light. The electro-optic fluorescence is twice as electro-optics transmission due to possibly coupling between pure scattering and fluorescence together, in which large size of TG molecules play an important role into the light scattering and fluorescence perpendicular to the incoming light.
This fluorescence light method provides more accurate measurement that transmission light and seems powerful comparison to the other spectroscopy methods. A research has been conducted that aims to model the subsurface structure of Semarang Fault, Central Java using gravity method. In this study successfully measured points of measurement of the earth's gravitational field spread almost evenly in the research area.
The measured data were then corrected to obtain a complete Bouguer anomaly value CBA. CBA data is then performed upward continuation to obtain residual anomaly and local anomaly values.
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The CBA data local components then can be done gradient analysis using first horizontal gradient. From the results of the method is then correlated with the geological map overlay to the location of the Semarang Fault was estimated. CBA local component data then made 3D modeling with inversion method. From the result of first horizontal gradient analysis, it is found that the research area is separated by the weak zone of the east-west. The presence of the northern weak zone is estimated to be lithology contact between the Damar Formation and Alluvium Deposition, while the weak zone in the center of the study area is estimated as Semarang Fault.
From 3D modeling which is estimated as the geological structure in the west part of the area and north-south trending direction is Kaligarang Fault with a depth of m. Semarang Fault is located in the middle of the research area on the east of the relative direction of the south of the north then curved to the west with a depth of m. Natural disasters now often occur in Indonesia, especially regarding atmospheric anomalies. The models of forecasting based convective cloud growth events are necessary to understand the anomaly symptoms of the atmosphere.
This research solves a problem, we propose a method that can analyze the convective cloud with Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model. The potential of turbulence then needed turbulence index like Richardson Number Ri. Generally, personal identification system is still done by conventional techniques, such as using ID cards, passwords or PIN numbers. These systems is easily lost, damaged or forgotten. In this paper we present a new method for identifying a person with a biometric based on palm of the hand.
This system does not require a peg like an identification system based on existing hand geometry. Phase of development are: first, the palm image scanned in the RGB format is converted into a gray level. Then the image is converted to binary by giving the correct threshold value. From the binary image, we carry out the edge detection process to get the contour perimeter of the palm.
From the contour perimeter of the palm, we measure the length of 8 edges contour perimeter of the fingers i. The identification process is performed by minimum distance, which is the smallest euclidean distance value associated with the test image and database.
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A fractal is a geometric figure that combines the several characteristics among others: its parts have the same form as the whole, fragmented, and formation by iteration. The concept of fractals has been spread over all fields of sciences, technology, and art. The properties of fractal sets are necessary to be investigated and favorable for the practical applications.
This paper aims to provide an algorithm for creating multicolor symmetrical fractal pattern generator. Generator algorithm consists of base, iteration, coloration, and duplication. To help the reader better understand the algorithm, we will present some script using Matlab. We describe a mathematically based algorithm that can fill a spatial region with a sequence of randomly placed which may be transformed copies of one motif or several motifs. This flexible algorithm can be used to produce a variety of aesthetically pleasing fractal patterns, of which we show some examples.
We hope that the existence of fractals can show that mathematics is not a dry and flat subject, but it is a beautiful subject and can produce works that have a high degree of art and intellectual value. Evaluated radiation dose and output of general radiographic machine on the thorax and abdomen examination. Radiation output testing on 53 radiographic machine produced in East Java, Indonesia. For thorax examination, kV, mA, exposure time 0.
Tests are carried out with the Piranha X-Ray Multimeter. There are reportedly 3 of 53 radiographic machine in the thorax examination as follows: the incident air kerma INAK , tube output, and entrance surface air kerma ESAK rates ranged between 0. Advancement in transportation technology certainly comes with numerous positive impacts. Nonetheless, some negative aspects including growing numbers of traffic accidents cannot be taken for granted. Factors that trigger traffic accidents range from human errors, vehicle mishaps, to the environment itself. Human error is somehow the factor that often causes traffic accidents.
This research aims to propose a method of detecting drowsiness using the total pixel algorithm for drivers, with the help of video cameras connected to a computer. It was expected that it would help reduce the number of traffic accidents. The method employed in this research is detecting drivers' faces by segmenting RGB images into YCbCr color spectrum, determining the area of the eyes, and classifying eyes condition using total pixel algorithm. The system developed has been able to detect drowsiness in drivers without glasses with However, for the detection of objects with glasses ranging from A passing train is a source of the noise.
Noisy is an unwanted sound from a business or activity at a certain level and time that can cause public health problems and environmental comfort. Noise is one of the problems for environmental health. In this study the measurement of daytime noise level Lsm and momentary noise level Lek at several points along the Cirebon-Cepu railway.
The daytime noise level Lsm is measured for 24 hours for each point while the instantaneous noise level is measured from 5 meters, 10 meters, 15 meters and 20 meters from the rail. Noise level at night Lsm and momentary noise level Lek which is measured is the noise level caused by various types of trains that are passing.
From the research that has been done, the noise level in some places has exceeded the Threshold Value. The highest noise level of Nighttime at Cirebon Prujakan Station is 78 dBA for Special areas, while the biggest increase in momentary noise is caused by a freight train of 30 dBA in Pulosaren Settlement. One of the renewable alternative energy and has the potential to be developed is biogas energy. However, in its development there are still some obstacles, one of which is leakage on digester. This leakage is caused by excess gas pressure inside the digester, so the excess gas that should be used is wasted.
In addition leaks on the digester can also cause air pollution and global warming. It is therefore necessary to design an effective by adding a controller as a pressure regulator of the biogas flow distribution. Excess gas in the next digester is flowed and accommodated in the container tube. Based on the research that has been done, can be produced an effective digester. With the automatic pressure control, the biogas distribution process becomes more optimal so as to minimize the exhaust gas from the digester.
To obtain hard rock bed rock as the pedestal of the toll road, it had been measured of the thickness of layers of soft or weathered rock that covers the bed rock. Direct measurements carried out by drilling will require a long time and great cost. Therefore, indirect measurements were made by geophysical estimation using resistivity method and were cross-checked with the HVSR method. To get the resistivity data in the research area, in this survey was conducted geoelectric sounding acquisition as much as 16 points whereas data acquisition by using microtremor measurements performed at nine measurement points.
The result of the analysis of geoelectric data with HVSR data gives slightly different layer thickness value. The survey area consists of two layers of soil with soft rock layers one were suspected to be sandy silt, and silty sand whereas the soft layer 2 was sandy gravel silt, each with varying thickness. The bed rock in this area is breccia that applies as half space with the thickness is not detected by the measurement. The apparent resistivity curves were obtained from geo-electrical resistivity data have similar curves with the HVSR ones.
From the inversion, the result of the bedrock depth from geo-electric resistivity compared to HVSR ones give difference slightly. Exploration of geothermal systems can be initiated from an assessment of surface manifestations. The manifestations of the Sangubanyu hot springs are scattered on the banks of the Lampir River along the m. This study aims to characterize the geothermal field based on geomorphology, lithology, structure, and geohydrology. The geological investigation was done by observation and direct measurement in the field of geological phenomena, such as geomorphology: landscape, river flow pattern and geomorphology stage; stratigraphy: spreading and rock unit relationships, rock outcrop profile; geological structure; manifestations and geothermal symptoms on both active and fossilized surfaces.
The geological structure of the study area is interpreted as a fault, and the hydrological data shows that hydrothermal water flows through the fault line below the shallow groundwater levels. Groundwater discharge in the form of springs at the research area is widespread in almost every topographical cutting or at the bottom of the valley cliff. Previous research by the resistivity method concluded that the Jatirunggo field as an outflow zone of a geothermal system.
This study aim is demonstrating the possibility of the permeable geothermal zone detection by using seismic refraction method's a complement of the geothermal conceptual model — the main research method by conducting refraction seismic. The method mainly applying active seismic wave to the media and identify the velocity properties of the pathway as a recording logger used 2D geode module which is consisting of 8 channels geophone by 5 meters geophone interval.
The penetrating depth can reach 15 m - 20 m. Processing of velocity model has been used Hagiwara algorithm of 2 layers. Based on the velocity model we can interpret the existence of a fault structure corresponding to the emergence of the hot springs, but the method was impenetrable up to the structured target.
The SDP geothermal research area geographically located in eastern Indonesia where there are geothermal manifestations of hot springs. Separation of complete Bouguer anomaly data to obtain regional and residual anomalies has been done by upward continuation. The results of the horizontal and vertical gradients indicate that the presence of the geothermal manifestation of MAP 1 hot spring is controlled by the presence of trending northwest-to-southeast fault. We interpret the emergence of manifestations due to the presence of a permeable zone in the form of the fault structure.
This research does to know the geological structure of the NPR geothermal area. We applied a gradient analysis and 3D modelling of gravity data based on bouguer anomaly, the additional method of euler deconvolution analysis to estimate the depth of the geological structure.
Based on the the result of horizontal gradien which is located at the maximum value and controlled by of vertical derivative which is located is at zero, we interpret that the appearance of a goethermal manifestation such as fumarole and hot spring controlled by the presence of fault. The use of x-rays in diagnostic activities should consider the balance between the radiation dose and the image quality as one of the radiation protections to the patient.
To provide radiation protection to the patient, a radiation shield from material with a high atomic number is required, and the alternative material is silicone rubber SR can be used. In this research, we have made radioprotection material in sheet form with SR material and catalyst. Several test parameters including physical density, percentage of x-ray transmission, and image quality were characterized.
The results of this study show that SR sheets does not significantly change image quality and SR material can be eligible to be used as radioprotection media in the radiodiagnostic field. Titanium dioxide is a photocatalyst material that can inhibit the growth of microorganisms, bacteria, and viruses.
Titanium dioxide can be modified into TiO 2 -SiO 2 -Ag composites to improve the ability to inhibit the growth of microorganisms due to increased adsorption capability and bactericidal properties. Coating of composite material on the cotton fabric was carried out by eight times dying. The coated cotton fabric was tested for antibacterial ability using UV-vis spectrophotometry method and agar disc diffusion method. FTIR data showed a typical functional group of the materials composing the composite. Antibacterial test results showed that the TiO 2 -SiO 2 -Ag composite material was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli gram-negative bacteria in liquid media and solid media by Komaladewi, P.
Aryanti, I D. Subagia and I G.
Rapid growth in environmental awareness raised the strict regulations on air pollution control and led to great developments in air filtration or cleaning technologies. The membrane is one of the promising technologies for air filtration due to its high efficiency, low cost, and easy to scale-up.
Two types of air filtration membranes have been used to provide high efficiencies in contaminant removal, namely electro-spun fibrous and microporous polymeric membranes. The fibrous membranes composed of randomly oriented fibers, either micro-or nano-fiber, and have been widely used to remove fine particles, such as aerosols. Meanwhile, the microporous membranes have a pore size that can remove both particulate and molecular, such as toxic gases. This paper reviews the role of membrane technologies in air pollution control.
The performances of the membranes are presented comprehensively. Besides, the developments of the membranes to improve the filtration efficiency and reduce air-flow resistance are also discussed. Kamir is one of the special foods in Pemalang which has round shapes, flat, and brown with a variety of jam taste. Kamir is made from flour dough, butter, egg, sugar," ambon " banana and fermented cassava called tape.
Until now, since there has been no research on kamir, we were interested in analyzing nutrition content carbohydrates, proteins, and fat found in kamir. We also performed microbiological tests, glycemic index, and rancidity. Carbohydrate content was tested by Luff Schrol method of sugar hydrolysis, a test of protein content used Kjehdahl micro method and fat content test used Soxhletasi fat method. As for the bacteria test obtained results of It is recommended to promote kamir , typical food from Pemalang, to be national food.
Grombyang is one of the typical food from Pemalang Central Java which sold freshly in restaurant or food stall. To marketed commercially outside Pemalang, several parts of grombyang seasoning was made in instant form. The study aimed to analyze the content of nutrients protein, and fat , and rancidity test contained in each grombyang seasoning which is dry galangal, fried onion, coconut srundeng, a mix of tauco, kluwek and palm sugar.
Another aim was to analyze the number of bacteria in grombyang seasoning. The protein test used Kjeldahl method, and fat test used Soxhletasi method. The results showed that the protein content of each spice component such as srundeng coconut grombyang was Fat content in spice component of grombyang for srundeng kelapa grombyang It can be concluded that the highest protein content found in fried onions and the highest fat content found in palm sugar.
Ogel-ogel is a unique food in Pemalang with a crispy textured within a distinctive cheese flavor. Ogel-ogel made from glutinous rice flour mixed with egg, cheese, sugar, and salt. Then the dough is printed like a caterpillar writhing using a special tool and then fried. The study aimed to examine the nutrition content and the total amount of bacteria inogel-ogel. The test included nutritional content test such as carbohydrate content test used luff schrooll method, protein used kjehdahl method, fat used sokletasi method, rancid used TBA Thiobarbituric Acid method with interval 5 days for 20 days, microbiology test used ALT method Total Plate Count with PCA media Plate Count Agar , free fatty acid test by titration method used NaOH.
The test results showed that ogel-ogelcontain carbohydrate equal to Based on the test, it can be concluded that Ogel-ogel is safe to be consumed because it is in the standard range of BPOM No. Phenolic acid was isolated from the extract by hydrolysis with and without a hydrolyzing agent TH. Two different hydrolyzing agents were used separately, i. Determination of phenolic acid content was carried out using TLC Scanner. Standard phenolic acid was used as a control.
The total gallic acid content was Binahong Anredera cordifolia Ten. Stennis is a plant which comes from Basellaceae family. Also, this plant is also known to have biological activity due to the presence of the bioactive compound. Phenolic acids are bioactive compound and widely used as antioxidants. Identification and testing of antioxidant activity using ethanol extract have been done in this research.
Phenolic acids were isolated without hydrolysis TH fraction , and by acid hydrolysis fraction HA , and alkaline hydrolysis HB fraction. Based on the identification using TLC with co-chromatography, UV-Vis and FTIR spectrophotometer, the ethanolic extract of binahong leaves was allegedly suspected contain p -coumaric acid.
The result of the antioxidant activity test on ethanol extract was The herbal, tofu and fertilizer industries contribute considerable waste. Unprocessed waste disposal can cause environmental pollution. The process of AOPs in this study used a combination of UV rays and ozone to produce hydroxyl radicals. The COD degradation at tofu wastewater was from to ppm, herbal wastewater was from to ppm, and fertilizer wastewater was from to 89 ppm by the use of 4 hours UV-Ozone method. The porosity of the peptide delivery pathway to the brain is hindered by the presence of tight junctions which are intercellular cadherin interactions, but this can be overcome by modulating the cadherin molecule using peptide derived synthesis, one of which is ADT Ac-Q GA DTPPVGV-NH 2 ' where there are amino acids glycine G and alanine A.
Formation reaction of the peptide is one of the most important chemical reactions, one way to probe the reaction of peptide synthesis is the computational method. The purpose of this research is to determine which mechanism of the reaction is most preferred to the synthesis of peptide bond formation between alanine and glycine from four pathways of the reaction mechanism, as well as glycine and glycine from two pathway of reaction mechanisms by ab initio computational approach. The results show the most preferred reaction of peptide synthesis of amino acid glycine and alanine is on the mechanism IV which result in Ac-GA-NH 2 with activation energy Carboxymethyl chitosan CMC is a biopolymer that has water-soluble properties, high viscosity, biocompatibility, biodegradable, and low toxicity.
CMC can be made by direct alkylation using monocloroacetic acid to produce chitosan derivatives under certain reaction conditions with NaOH as a catalyst. This research aims to explain one the reaction mechanism of bonding formation of O-C and to compare with the effect of the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. The reaction mechanism of O-CMC formation studied by the computational method. Chitosan polymer is very complex, so the molecule model used for calculation is chitosan dimer segment.
The stable molecular structure of chitosan dimer which is involved in the reaction mechanism was optimized using ab initio computational method based on Hartree Fork theory and G d,p basis set. The mechanism of the synthesis reaction of O-CMC is an exothermic reaction and spontaneously. Activated carbon is one of the basic needs in food processing. Activated carbon can be improved from rock, wood and bone processing. The wood to be made into activated carbon is teak, mango, and jackfruit. Where teak, mango, and jackfruit are the types of wood used for fuel in industrial tofu boilers.
The results of this combustion usually only become waste as charcoal boiler waste. The results of combustion contain carbon which can be used as this activated carbon. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease; it caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this paper, we discuss how to use the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion to analyze the stability of disease free of the tuberculosis transmission model.
From this method, can be found the number of roots of the characteristic polynomial eigenvalues with positive real parts is equal to the number of changes in sign of the first column of the Routh array. If all of the eigenvalues are negative, then the model is stable. While the bifurcation method is used to analyze the stability of the endemic equilibrium point of the tuberculosis transmission, the endemic equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable if reproduction number greater than one and additional parameters requirement that bifurcation met.
Finally, numerical simulations are demonstrated to verify the used method. Influenza Virus is an infectious disease caused by the Orthomyxoviridae virus. This paper discussed mathematical modeling that explains the model of the influenza virus transmission with SEIR model, where S is susceptible, E is exposed, I is infected, and R is recovered. Basic reproduction numbers R 0 are used to analyze the stability of the model. When R 0 less than 1 the virus free equilibrium is stable asymptotically local, while when R 0 greater than 1 the endemic equilibrium is stable asymptotically local.
From the numerical simulation results based on data from Pekalongan, Indonesia, it's found that reproduction number is equal to 0, This indicates that the virus free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable and the endemic equilibrium is not locally asymptotically stable, so that there is no virus transmission in Pekalongan.
In medicine study, one of the things that is interesting enough to be studied is "time-to-event". In general, time-to-event is used in doing survival analysis, such as analysis of Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is one of the diseases which affects dopamine producer in brain area that is called by substantia nigra. The symptom of Parkinson disease is measured specifically by stages that are called by Hoehn and Yahr stages. This stages are distributed on integers between 0 to 5 with stage 0 is stage that does not have big impact and stage 5 is the most severe level. The process of construction survival function is using the Independent Metropolis-Hastings algorithm in Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods on Bayesian Inference with uniform proposal distribution and the results are compared with Kaplan-Meier estimator for survival function.
The result that is obtained through this algorithm is more represents the actual survival function if it is compared with Kaplan-Meier estimator, although there are so many censored data in the dataset. This study aims to determine the analysis stability of dynamical model of pompano, cantang growth, and nutrition on the Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture IMTA systems by using the Lyapunov method. The analytical analysis was given to discuss the dynamic behavior of this model. Global stability analysis was performed based on the Lyapunov theory, i.
In this paper, we propose a quadratic programming model to determine the optimal decision for integrated supplier selection and inventory control. The corresponding optimization is solved by using constrained quadratic optimization method i. A numerical experiment was performed to analyze the model with a multi-product, multi-supplier, multi-carrier and multi-period inventory system. From the results we have found, we can find the optimal supplier for each product and each period.
Land-use management is the key parameter in developing an agropolitan area. The Spatial Plan of Pati District contains plans for the Gembong Subdistrict to be developed into an agropolitan area. The Gembong Reservoir is one of the reservoirs in the region that has a vital role in supporting the area development. The main problem in managing the Gembong reservoir is the decreasing availability of reservoir water. Increased sedimentation affects the availability of reservoir water, which is used as a supply of irrigation areas.
Management of water availability must be based on optimization analysis, because the volume of storage is limited and increasing inflow to the reservoir to increase the water level requires a long time. Therefore, the optimization model of reservoir water management is urgent to be formulated, so that the reservoir operator can be utilized to determine the allocation of supplementary water. This article presents a study of the results of observations in the field and secondary data, as well as reviews of related scientific articles, to be able to identify potential environmental stresses on reservoir water availability and its management.
Mount Merapi eruption in resulted in the environmental damage and disruption of socio-economic life of the society. Post-eruption cold lava floods carry the volcanic sedimentary materials in the form of sand and stone are very abundant. Unfortunately, the abundance of these natural resources is exploited at low prices. The problem is how to manage the sedimentation to have high economic value. The adaptation efforts to manage this sediment need to be done to immediately restore the social economic slump of society. The sediment management model that can improve economic value and competitiveness needs to be done by maintaining the sustainability of its natural resources.
This article contains the results of research on the application of crystallographic tiling to improve the economic value and competitiveness of sand sediments. Three types of sediment-based products are successfully made of tiles, rosters, and paving. A temporal point process is a one-dimensional point process where events are observed by time.
A temporal point process can be viewed as a renewal process with time between events as random variables. The conditional intensity function of the process represents the expected rate dependent on time between events so that we can predict earthquakes activities. This research will be discussed about parameters estimation of conditional intensity function using Bayesian method and be applied to earthquake data in East Nusa Tenggara ENT from January to April The ENT is categorized as earthquake prone, because it is flanked by two zones of earthquakes.
In southern region there are the Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates sub ducted, and in the north there is a back arc thrust. Based on the research results, it was obtained the conditional intensity estimation. The application of conditional intensity estimation represents the expected rate of earthquake occurrence in East Nusa Tenggara at a certain time interval.
The time intervals are in units of days. The greatest conditional intensity is at the time interval day th to th that is 0. It means that the probability earthquake occurrence in East Nusa Tenggara at that time period is very low with the total number of occurrences are 28 earthquakes. The total edge irregularity strength of G , denoted by tes G is the minimum k used to label graph G with the edge irregular total labelling.
In this paper, authors investigate the total edge irregularity strength of Dove tail graph with n pendant vertices , and the subdivision of which is denoted as. The results of this research are and. Multi-agents systems is a system consisting of several agents, from two to hundreds agents. These agents are connected to each other. The main problem is how to control such systems. This paper isnpired from some facts as follows. In nature, can be viewed animals perfom multi agent system in the land and in the air. In avionic world, can be observed that there are many cases where pilots must fly their aircrafts in some particular formation.
Some ships also very often form a convoy. In smaller scales, can be viewed that there are many robot designer would like to create multi-robot system for conducting some task. In particular, this paper focuses on the robotics utilizations. That is we would like to steer the multi-agent system to go from one particular position to the other position.
Moreover, the agents move in some formations is required. The first objective of this paper is to create mathematical model of multi-agent system applicable in robotic. The model would consist of Serret-Frenet control systems. The second objective is to model the performance index of the multi-agent system. Thus, we would like the multi-agent system move from one place to another and the whole group of agents works collaboratively for optimizing the performance index.
This is the idea behind multi-agent control system design. The third objective is to analyze controllability the above models. The last objective is to find the optimal control of each agent. The Pontryagin Maximumm Principle is used to search this optimal control.
The result of this paper, optimal control can be used to model the multi agent system Serret-Frenet system. A commutative ring is said to be clean if every element of the ring can be written as a sum of a unit and an idempotent. In this paper, we generalize this argument to structure of neutrosophic. We present the structure of clean neutrosophic ring.
Some elementary properties of clean neutrosophic ring are also presented. In a ring with involution we already know that the Moore Penrose inverse can be used to construct the properties of normal elements. By using the fact that the group inverse of an element in a ring will be commutative with element which is commutative with that element, this paper explains that the generalization of Moore Penrose inverse can be also to establish some properties of normal elements in a ring with an involution. Some elements in the ring such as symmetric, EP, partial isometries, etc are also can be expressed in group inverse.
So the results of this paper much be required for built the properties of those elements. In this paper, we present several new characteristics of the Moore-Penrose inverse in rings with involution. We use the concept of the Drazin inverse to build these characteristics in purely algebraic terms. We only discuss on the symmetric element of Moore-Penrose invertible. Moore-Penrose inverse is one of development of generalized inverse. In this paper, we defined and studied a relation between the Moore-Penrose inverse and the Drazin inverse in the setting of rings with involution.
The results of this paper are new characterizations of Moore-Penrose inverse by applying Drazin inverse with an algebraic proof. This paper discusses the subspace of the set of matrices over the set of integers modulo 2, symbolized by M n 2. This set M n 2 is a vector space over n with scalar matrix multiplication and addition modulo n on matrices of M n 2. Will be given properties that proper subset and proper a subgroup of M n 2 which is a subspace of M n 2. It's used M 2 2 to illustration the proof of the theorems. The patients sometimes do not take the medicine regularly so that the TB-bacteria do not completely vanish from their body.
The bacteria only weaken so the patients can be re-infected relapse. Mathematical modelling can be used to determine TB transmission based on changes in the number of TB patients. By concerning vaccination and relapse factors, a susceptible vaccinated infected recovered SVIR model with relapse in TB transmission need to be developed. Indonesia got the second rank in the new case of TB in the world. In the national program of TB prevention, Indonesia has three indicators i.
Furthermore, we also predict the three indicators of TB in Indonesia. The model is nonlinear first-order differential equations. The model is applied in Indonesia by estimating parameters based on data. Model accuracy is measured based on relative errors in and Thus, the model is said to be quite accurate and can be used to predict the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of TB in Indonesia.
The prediction of these three indicators shows a decline year by year with an average decrease of 1. The waste load of organic matters in the stabilization ponds is degraded through biological treatment, that is to reduce or decrease the level of pollutants of organic matters by using and utilizing microorganisms. This problem will be solved using a mathematical model, that is linear programming with fuzzy variables on the Wastewater Treatment Plant WWTP. The results of this method can be used as an evaluation method to determine the optimal waste load and the level of degradation of organic matter.
Rivest Shamir Adlemann RSA method is one of the popular methods in the field of public key cryptography. The strength of the RSA method is based on the difficulty level of factoring of two large prime numbers. If they are factored easily, then we need to use brute force to break the system. In this present, we combined RSA method with classical method, namely Affine Cipher method to improve the level of security on text message. The process of combination RSA method and Affine Cipher method is as follow: first, text message was encryption using Affine Cipher method, then the encryption output is used as input of the RSA method.
The results certified that the improvement of the security level of text message can be realized by using the combined method. A mathematical model is developed to capture the spread of HIV-1 infection within host cells caused by the contact of cell to cell and CTL response. We analyse the model to investigate the existence and stability of the equilibria. We analyse the local stability of disease free equilibrium by linearization, while the global stability of endemic equilibrium of the system by constructing Lyapunov function.
Numerical simulations are presented to find the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment in different scenarios and to the implication of CTL response in controlling the progression of HIV-1 infection. In general, the logarithmic returns of asset prices are not normally distributed.
Brownian motion and normal distribution have been widely used in the Black-Scholes-Merton bond framework to model the return of assets. Merton has provided a formula for the valuation of a zero coupon bond where the asset price process contains a continuous Poisson jump component, in addition to a continuous log-normally distributed component.
This paper applies jump diffusion processes to derive some bond parameters, these are equity and default probability, when the asset prices have extreme values. Finance time series data has a high complexity, so that the acurate prediction is hard to be gained by standard model. Machine learning becomes the new prediction tool which is often used because of its adaptive properties. Neural Network NN is one of the machine learning which able to complete inference tasks such as prediction, especially in large data sets.
In the standard optimization method, the initial weights is randomly selected to desire the optimum solution. But It usually raises the problem of unsteady estimation. The GA optimization method was applied in this research to overcome this lack. GA optimizes any function effectively and seeks a global optimum solution efficiently.
The daily stock price prediction of PT. This result was equivalent with MAPE values at 1. The income distribution model has provided an important aspect of economic inequality analysis. The determination of income inequality can be assisted by modeling a probability distribution of income which can be modeled by both parametric and nonparametric method. In the parametric perspective, the finite mixture distributions can perform a data-driven capability to model this income pattern of distributions which have particularly long-tailed, right-skewed and multimodal characteristics.
The gamma distribution which has been widely used for estimating income distribution is used to develop the finite gamma mixture model which means the gamma distribution in each mixture component of the model. Bayesian approach pairs up with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo MCMC which has a valid inference without depending on normality asymptotic condition is used to estimate this finite mixture model.
In this paper, the household income which was constructed based on the Indonesian Family Life Survey IFLS data was utilized to show the work of the Bayesian inference performance through MCMC algorithm in estimating the parameter of the finite gamma mixture model. The goodness-of-fit comparisons of proposed finite gamma mixture models were made based on the widely applicable information criteria WAIC.
Value at Risk VaR is a method to estimate the worst risk of an investment. The stock data is one of the financial time series data which often has high volatility which causes inconstant residual variance. The combination between several stocks in the portfolio makes the assumption of residual normality of the joint distribution model difficult to fulfill. The previous research on VaR by Sofiana in  and Hermansyah in  found that VaR value was reliable only for the data fulfilling normality assumption.
Therefore, it is necessary to estimate VaR without ignoring the presence of heteroscedasticity and unfulfilled residual normality of the joint distribution model. Based on the data generation obtained using Monte Carlo simulation, the results of the VaR were Today, crude oil trading industry became an important industry in the world, it was caused by highly fuel oil consumption. The price of crude oil has a changing price trend, it makes the prediction of crude oil in the coming periods to be challenging.
Various methods can use to forecast price of crude oil, it is using ARIMA Box-Jenkins model with OLS method to estimate the parameter, but this method has several assumptions that must be complete. Overtime, many methods were develop, one of them is artificial neural network can be combine with various parameter optimization methods such as Adaptive Simulated Annealing algorithm. Adaptive Simulated Annealing algorithm is an optimization method it was inspired by the process of crystallization, the advantages of this algorithm has a running time faster than similar algorithms.
The combination of artificial neural networks and Adaptive Simulated Annealing algorithms can be used to model the historical data without requiring assumptions in the analysis. Red onion is one of the strategic horticulture commodities in Indonesia considering its function as the main ingredients of the basic ingredients of Indonesian food.
For increasing production to supply national necessary, Central Java as the main center of red onion production should be able to predict the production of several periods to maintain the balance of national production. The existence of skewness and kurtosis in finance data distribution is as a generalization of the normal density.
Non-normal skewness and kurtosis of underlying asset of bond issuer significantly contribute to the phenomenon of volatility smile. Merton jump diffusion model is one of the first beyond Black-Scholes model in the sense that it tries to capture the effect of skewness and kurtosis of the asset prices density by a simple addition of a compound Poisson jump process. Another approach to consider the effect of skewness and kurtosis in asset prices for bond valuation is the Gram-Charlier G-C expansion. Hermite polynomial is used to get an expansion of the probability distribution in G-C method.
The result showed that G-C model is more consistent than MJD model when the skewness and kurtosis are taken into account. The currency crisis that occurred in the middle of , and 4 th quarter of was caused by disturbances in the currency system. When there is disturbance in the system then the cause indicators will experience fluctuations and changes in conditions. High fluctuation can be modeled using volatility model, while the changes in condition can be modeled using Markov switching model. Visit Amalia Kalambaka Hotel: www.
The Amalia Delphi has an exquisite location at the foot of mount Parnassus offering panoramic view to the green valley, all the way to the sea, Itea and the beautiful town of Galaxidi. The ancient Greeks believed that Delphi was the centre of the earth. Others can enjoy a cup of hot chocolate while observing the snowy landscape. Seen from Delphi seawards, it is the first picturesque village built over the Gulf of Corinth.
Uphill from the main harbour is situated the Nautical and Historical Museum. You can enjoy a stroll through the oval-shaped old harbour with its fortifications, and climb the ramparts. Skiers and excursionists from all over Greece flock here. Spring and summer also afford opportunities to sightseers and explorers, because of the ideal combination of sea and mountains.
Visit Amalia Delphi Hotel: www. Amalia Olympia Hotel is a unique place that combines the energy, the space, the serenity of Ancient Olympia, set in a green landscape filled with olive trees. The restaurant and the large swimming pool are situated on the ground level with immediate access to the gardens, and join forces to provide a relaxing holiday. From its beginnings the site was a sanctuary.
The origins of the Olympic games are rooted in legends related first to the god Pelops , then to Zeus , and later to Hercules. The contests began around the eleventh century BC, and over the next two centuries from a local festival it grew to a quadrennial celebration attended by states from throughout the Greek world. The main focus of the precinct in provided by the Temple of Zeus. The most complete building on the site is the smaller Temple of Hera.
Also exhibited are statuary and sculpture finds reassembled from the Temple of Zeus, as well as smaller objects as a Persian helmet, the helmet of Miltiades , the t erracotta group of Zeus abducting Ganymede , and finds from the workshop of Pheidias. It has a long beach which gives way to sand dunes. After the Thiseion in Athens it is the best-preserved Classical monument in the country, said to have been designed by Iktinos , architect of the Parthenon. Visit Amalia Olympia Hotel: www. Preveza is a port town on the Ionian sea, with rich history from ancient and roman times.
Margarona Royal Hotel enjoys a privileged location facing the Ambracian gulf, minutes away from the port and the centre of Preveza. The hotel reopened after an extensive renovation in and welcomes the guests in its familiar, friendly and enhanced surroundings. In the past it was invaded by the Romans , Venetians , Franks and Turks.
This important ecological environment is a pole of attraction for scientists and naturalists the world over. Rebuilding took place in the second century. The island, accessible by ferries and boat trips from the mainland, is famous for its blue-green seas and much-advertised shores.