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Greece often hosts large magnitude earthquakes, whilst a moderate or small magnitude earthquake is felt every days on average. No historical information is provided for extensive migration of populations and obliteration of civilizations in Greece due to earthquakes. Five people were killed. The damage to brick buildings was big,especially in Assiros as well as in Langada and in Agios Vasilios.

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In Thessaloniki many buildings had problems as well as the port, but only few of them had serious damages. The largest of the cracks observed in the soil had length m. Athos Peninsula. The epicentre was located near the monastery of Stavronikita as to be seen on this map. There was damage in Karyes, Lavra, Kavsokalivia and many other places. The earthquake caused also a huge stone avalanche on the south slope of the mountain near Ag.

The earthquake destroyed the town of Ierissos and several villages in the surrounding area. The Ierissos earthquake occurred at on 26 September. The shock registered 6. The epicenter was 20km east of Thessaloniki between lake Koronia and Volvi, in the village of Stivos.

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It lasted 10 seconds. It also followed a series of powerful aftershocks with stronger that of 5. The collapse of a eight-storey building in Hippodrome Square wreaked havoc as 29 were killed out of the total 49 victims. The total cost of repair was estimated at billion euros.


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Messina on 28 December The most devastating earthquake took place in Messina, his magnitude was 7. The earthquake almost levelled Messina and Reggio Calabria. About ten minutes after the earthquake, the sea on both sides of the Strait suddenly withdrew and a meter foot tsunami swept in and three waves struck nearby coasts. It impacted hardest along the Calabrian coast and inundated Reggio Calabria after the sea had receded 0 meters from the shore.

In Messina, the tsunami also caused more devastation and deaths. The disaster affected the local economy and Messina faced a temporary depopulation after so many homeless survivors had sought refuge elsewhere. In the years following , precautions were taken when the reconstruction of Messina began in , building architecture that would be able to withstand earthquakes of variable magnitude, if one should strike again. Initially, authorities adopted a plan to demolish the remaining structures of Messina and transfer the city and its port elsewhere in Sicily but this was discarded after strong protests from the Messina.

Azores earthquake — 71 people died, 7. The Lisbon earthquake, This is the most intense earthquake that has ever occurred in Portugal. It occurred on Saturday, November 1st. Today the seismologists estimate that this earthquake had a magnitude around 8.

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Even though it caused the most damage in Lisbon it was also particularly destructive in Morocco where approximately 10, people lost their lives. Table of contents 1. Historical disasters in Europe 2. Earthquakes 2. Greece 2. Italy 2. Portugal 2. If disturbed by any wild beasts during the night, they betake themselves to the inner rooms.

My father's house consisted of two bedrooms, a kitchen, a mill room, and a goat room, or fold. Goats' milk is considered a very wholesome commodity; it has a pleasing sweet taste, which attracts the palate to it, and is said to possess a certain virtue in medicinal qualities. The junior male members of the family are employed in taking care of the flock.

When a number of them are going in the same direction they mix their flocks together, and each in his turn mutually takes care of the whole flock till evening, when, by a cry peculiar to each goat-herd, his flock separates from the rest, and follows him. He then takes them home, gets them milked, and secures them in the fold. Those which are great favourites are generally taken into the sleeping apartments.

The milk must not be allowed to stand till the middle of next day, else it would get quite sour. In order to prevent this catastrophe they either drink it or make butter of it. Their mode of churning is as follows The gourd or calabash, which grows plentifully in these districts, is a plant something similar to Page 16 a melon plant. It's fruit is like a melon, but the inside is bitter. The gourd melons grow to different sizes, so that the natives make dishes and plates out of them, by cutting them into halves.

The churn, however, requires a whole melon, and one of the largest is taken for that purpose. After a part of the pith is taken out, it is filled with water, and permitted to stand till the inside is quite rotten. It is then cleaned out, secured into a rope basket, suspended to the roof of one of the rooms, so as it can be reached by a person standing, and there it serves as a churn,--the dairymaid's work being to put the milk into it, and work it to and fro with her hands. No cream is extracted. The butter is generally used for rubbing their skins; and very little clothing being used, many of them could be seen standing out in the sun like a number of polished statues.

After washing themselves with water, they never think that they are complete till they rub some butter on their skins. The dress among the higher classes is a long wide gown, reaching to the ancles, and wide open sleeves, so as not to confine the wearer too much, and sandals on their feet. The lower classes, again, have a long wide plaid, which they tie round their body, and over one of their shoulders, leaving the other quite free; while in length it only reaches to the knees.

This forms all their variety of dress. Their food is entirely confined to the Indian corn, served up in different ways. They seldom Page 17 kill their goats for butcher meat, having a great desire to preserve a large stock. Having given a short account of the customs of my native country, I shall now relate my own history. YOUTH is the period in which true happiness is enjoyed. It is the time when all trials and difficulties seem to lie in oblivion; and it is then that all principles can be instilled into the tender mind.

The mind in youth is not prejudiced, builds many castles in the air although without any symptoms of ambition, is pleased and always desires to please. It is like the shoot of a tender flower ere its leaves expand. It is the germ on which strong propensities and sentiments are framed. It is in youth that the stronger faculties of the artist, the genius, and the mechanic are pictured. None of these propensities, however, were predominant in my mind while home was my residence.

Being the oldest of the boys, my pride was raised to no small degree when I beheld my father preparing a farm for me. This event filled my mind with the grand anticipation of leaving the goats to my brother, who was then beginning to work a little. While my father was making these preparations, I had the constant charge of the goats; and being accompanied by two other boys who resided near Page 18 my father's house, we wandered many miles from home, by which means we acquired an acquaintance with the different districts of the country.

While tending our flock between two hills, we spied two men shaping their course towards us. They inquired whether we had any goats for them, a term quite common in that country. Our reply was, of course, in the negative; but they merely used this craft in order to deprive us of suspicion. Myself being nearest to them, I was firmly secured in their hands, and forced away whether I would or not. On showing symptoms of resistance, one of them procured a green twig, and whipped me till the blood was falling in drops from my legs.

Incidents Connected with the Life of Selim Aga: A Native of Central Africa

After proceeding some miles, we came to a house, where I was tied with ropes hand and foot, and laid down to rest. Next morning, before dawn of day, my cruel master took the ropes off my legs, and, setting me on a certain direction, desired me to walk while he followed with a large whip.

Terrified out of my judgment, I saw that there was nothing to be done but either do or suffer. I of course chose the former. This was rather a harsh treatment for a child of eight years of age. Commencing before sunrise, we continued our journey till the middle of the day, when we arrived at a village. This village went under the name of Tegla. At the village of Tegla my inhuman master disposed of me, and returned Page 19 home.

On entering the house of my new master, what was my astonishment on seeing an old acquaintance there, a girl with whom I had an interview a few weeks previous. She, poor creature, had also fallen into the hands of the enemy only a few days before myself. This girl, whose name was Medina, admonished me on this occasion, telling me to do whatever I was desired, assuring me that the white man would not care for taking our lives, that the killing of us would not cost him a thought.

We were well secured with iron chains on our feet, and were never permitted to go far from the house. We could never fall upon plans for effecting our escape, although we often tried different means for that purpose. One night I managed to get the chains off my feet, and would have escaped had not the fear of being recaptured prevented me. Notwithstanding all the plans which Medina resorted to, she could not get the chains off her feet.

A short time after this, a caravan consisting of merchants and travellers left the village of Tegla. With this caravan our master joined, and, after a day's journey, we arrived at a small village, where he was disappointed in his object, viz. Arriving at the village, we received the heart-rending intelligence that our friends had been in search of us, and were frustrated, having heard that we were taken to a distant land.

Another caravan was soon Page 20 equipped for a farther distance. This was some four day's journey from the village of Tegla, to a large town called Kordofan, under the jurisdiction of the Pacha of Egypt. The first night we pitched our tents at a well of water, not having seen a single house on the whole of our journey. The second day we continued our journey till late at night, when we received the guidance of some light from a distant village, where we arrived and reposed ourselves.

This village was called by the natives Albaharr, or, as seen on our maps, Albeit. The inhabitants are a people who might be distinguished among a thousand different nations. Such is their love of jewellery, that they wear rings on their nostrils as well as ears. Instead of horses, or donkeys, or camels, they ride upon bullocks, the noses of which are also adorned with rings, and to these the bridles are tied.

We stayed a few days at this place, and shared the unfeigned hospitality of the people, who were uncommonly kind. During our stay here, Medina and I were taken to the camp of the Turks, not far away from the village, where we were put through different exercises. The first thing we were desired to do was to show our tongues, and then our teeth. The rest of our limbs underwent a serious examination also.

Having undergone this examination, we were taken back to our lodgings again. The next day our master joined the Turks, who were returning to Kordofan, and by that means ensured our fate of never returning to our native country. In two days we Page 21 reached the point of our destination, and there our master disposed of us to an Arab, with whom we lived but two or three days.

From an Arab we fell into the hands of a Turk. My time while with the first three masters was employed doing nothing. The Turkish gentleman found work for every body; and all the testimony I can bear to his good character is, that he was one of the cruelest men in existence. Being an officer of the rank of an aga, his men suffered many harsh cruelties under him. On one occasion, a soldier having been brought to his house for a small offence, he took the office of corporal; and commanding four men to hold him down, beat the poor man, till the blood was running from his cheeks.

The keeper of his camels often suffered in a similar way. My office was what might be called a general house-servant. The duties of waiting the table, washing dishes, making coffee, and waiting for orders, were allotted to me as my share of the work. Medina was made assistant cook for a short time, but I had the disagreeable misfortune to see her sold to another Turk; thus I was left to suffer alone.

Some six months, however, relieved me of my hardships. To mention all the cruelties I suffered at that time, would be quite needless. I will only notify a few of them. My master, on whom I had continually to attend, punished every small fault with great severity. If he called, he said I ought to hear him at whatever distance I might be. At one time, being sent from home by my Page 22 mistress, my master interrogated me on my return with where have you been, and began to thrash me.

Self-justification was of no use. No moderate blows did with him, for while he struck one side of my head, he met it at the other side also. I became almost insensible, while the blood was running out of my ears. At another time, having made some coffee by his own orders, I happened to make a few cups more than was required.

He said nothing at the time; but after I was in bed, he got hold of a horse whip, and coming upon me unawares, thrashed me till I was quite speechless. I am persuaded he would have killed me had not one of the domestics heard my cries, and come to my rescue. Here I may mention that a very small child can stop a Mahomedan from revenging himself to too great an extent, by taking the whip, or whatever he uses, from him. One of the slaves was the means of preventing my master from whipping me any longer.

In Kordofan the houses are all of one storey high. The part in which I lived was chiefly occupied by officers in the Pacha's service. My master was married, had two children, two female slaves, two males, and myself. The other two being grown-up men, were taken out to exercise along with the rest of the soldiers. When coming home from exercise, my master was sure to be heard crying my name a quarter of a mile's distance from the house, at which I had to run out to meet him and carry his sword home. These, and other sufferings of the like nature, Page 23 prepared me for my subsequent career, and fitted me for the journey on the desert.

The circumstances which relieved me of my present master were as singular as the many unlooked-for whippings I received. One evening, when the sun was going down, and everything assuming the quietude of an eastern calm, a certain Arab came to our house, with whom I was desired to go and fetch some soap.

I left everything behind me, and went on my supposed errand. Having arrived at the man's house, he asked my name, and told me that I was his property. I merely answered his reply by a look, for ere this time I had become quite regardless of my fate. My new master, whose name was Jubalee, was a native of Dongola, and had come to Kordofan on a trading excursion. He was in company with two others of the names of Auchmet and Mahomet from the same town. Mahomet, the youngest of the two, was a cruel monster, torturing and beating the slaves without any occasion.

Auchmet was moderate. My master was of a quiet resigned temper, unless too much interfered with, and very seldom whipped any of his slaves. Having gathered six of us, they now thought of starting for their native country; and to this effect preparations were soon made. They procured four camels, a horse, and other necessaries for travelling, and started, shaping their course to the banks of the Nile.

Travelling in these eastern countries is attended with many perilous situations, those engaged in it being exposed to Page 24 starvation from want of water, liable to be attacked by beasts which have reliquished their first subordination, and entirely under the mercy of the monsoons. Our journey before reaching the banks of the Nile occupied ten days. Many were the privations we suffered on our way, sometimes from the excessive heat of the sun, and sometimes from want of water.

During the middle of the day, we were so much overpowered by the heat, that we often had to delay our journey. At another time we had to exist a whole day without water, under the following circumstances: The water camel, of which I had a particular charge, was going before all the rest, and, unfortunately came, upon a dead camel lying on the road.

The sight and smell of this animal soon spirit-stirred it, and the result was, that it danced and ran through thick and thin till the water bags, which were hanging on each side of the saddle, were destroyed, having come in contact with some wood on the side of the saddle. Fortune, however, had not altogether turned her face from us, for, in the evening, we came to some wells, where we supplied ourselves and rested for the night. From this place we pursued our journey to the banks of the Nile, and pitched our tents in the valley of Senaar, only a short distance from the town.

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My master left me here with the old man, two Page 25 of the slaves, and a camel. Taking with him Mahomet, and the rest of the travelling appendages, he went to the town of Senaar, and there stayed for about a fortnight. During the whole of my time here, I had very little to occupy me, so I ran about through the different places without the least danger of meeting with a second kidnap. The vale at that time was in its prime, the trees having on their coats of variegated green; the grass, the herbs, and flowers, in full bloom; in short, everything was so beautiful, that nature seemed to contradict the wickedness of the world.

Happening one day to go to the river side, I observed something uncommon moving on the water, with some white sheets filled with wind, as I thought. I had a dish in which I intended to have carried some water home, but on seeing this curious spectacle approaching me, I took to my heels, and leaving the dish behind, presented myself almost breathless before the old man.

On explaining to him the appearance of the sight I had seen, he reprimanded my silliness, and told me that it was a ship, assuring me that it would injure no person, provided the people on board kept quiet, so I went back for my dish. This was the first time I ever saw a ship. My master arriving from Senaar soon after, we started, with an additional number of merchants from the town, and proceeded to Dongola. These merchants were not possessed of slaves, but had a great number of camels, and horses, and donkeys, thus making a Page 26 formidable caravan.


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For three or four days we shaped our course along the banks of the Nile, under the direction of one of the native Arabs. At the end of that time, we prepared for a journey on the Libyan desert. Our Arab guide now left us to pilot ourselves, and returned home. I was entirely deprived of a ride on any of the camels, being engaged in leading my old friend, the water camel, which was now turned into an hospital.

One of the female slaves having grown ill with a mortal swelling in her thigh, could not walk, and, in consequence, I had to lead the camel on which she rode for nearly a month while crossing the desert. She grew worse and worse every day till she died, and was buried in the sand, without coffin or anything, while her death was not commemorated by the shedding of a single tear. Such are the horrors of the slave trade. Well do I remember the evening of her death. The sun was going down, the azure sky appeared to witness the end with calmness and composure, while the surrounding aspect threw a deep gloom over all our proceedings.

I was thrown far behind the rest of the travellers; my fellow companion in slavery began to totter on her saddle, and death was soon announced by her falling from the camel. She was a native of Durfur,--a woman in the zenith of her life. The death of this unfortunate female put me in permanent possession of the camel during the remainder of the journey. By this time I became a great favourite with my master; and on one occasion Page 27 he broke his walking cane over the back of one of the slaves on account of having taken the chief seat on my camel from me.

Constrained by sorrow afterwards, my master desired me not to tell how his cane was broken. From the tediousness of our journey, we were glad to see Old Dongola, which predicted our nearness to the point of our destination. This town is situate on the banks of the Nile, and is distinguished for its ruins. We stayed here a short time to recruit our strength, and then proceeded to New Dongola, along the river's banks. A few days saw us home, and on our arrival, the different masters separated, each taking a share of the spoil with him.

Auchmet, the eldest, took two of the slaves and a camel; Jubalee took for his share three of the slaves--one having died in the desert; and Mahomet took the rest of the live stock. I was only a few days with my master at his home when I was purchased by Mahomet's father. Mahomet's father and mother were two aged persons, and wished me to be a companion to them while their son followed his occupation.

But their next door neighbour having expressed a desire for me to keep his shop, I was accordingly sold to him. I did not like my new master so well as the two former ones,--he often behaving cruelly to his slaves.

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I was generally very fortunate in keeping out of the many whippings which the rest received. On taking me to his house, he gave me some meat, and immediately after took me to his shop, about half a Page 28 mile from the house. He was a dealer in all sorts of spices and gums,--the produce of the country. His shop was in one of the Dongola arcades, and was situated between a doctor's and a jeweller's.

Besides myself, another young man, of the name of Salama, graced the shop door. Salama and I became great friends, and often went together to play by the water side. After the shop was shut one evening, we traced our steps, as usual, to the river's side, but what was my singular astonishment on perceiving a female at a distance whom I thought I knew. On going up to her, whom should I see but my old friend, Medina. Salama stood quite astonished when he heard her call me her brother. A small explanation, however, soon settled him.

Medina took us to her master's house, and introduced us to her fellows, but our time being limited, we had to leave and get home as quick as possible, promising to return and see them again.


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This was a thing which we never accomplished while together, for Salama was sold soon after. A few days after this event, Salama and I happened to fall in with a pistol and some powder in the shop. Curiosity induced us to load it. Being the first time I had examined a pistol closely, I desired Salama to fire. He went to the window, and putting the mouth of it out to the open air, fired it off, and loaded it again, asking me to fire it off next. Instead of using the same precautions as he did, I fired it off in the shop, which caused a great smell of powder in the arcade. This induced Page 29 the neighbours to investigate every place closely, who found that the greatest smell proceeded from our shop.

They accordingly took hold of Salama, and would have thrashed him had he not put the blame upon me. I now took to my heels and ran for it, but my limbs were not sufficient to escape so many pursuers in the arcade; in consequence I was captured, and received such a thrashing as I did not forget in a very short time.

Luckily our master was away from the shop at the time of this occurrence. Contrary to our expectations, he only gave a laugh when he was informed of our conduct. Soon after our master found out that it was not adequate to keep two of us in the shop, and accordingly sold my friend, Salama. I was now obliged to deal alone among the spices. I made out to pay another visit to Medina, who always gave me a kind reception, and had a little more time to relate our respective histories.

I found that I was with my seventh master, whilst she was only with her fifth.